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Photovoltaic cells are made of two semi-conductor layers, one of which contains a positive charge, the other containing a negative charge. Sunlight is made of tiny particles that are called photons. When a photovoltaic cell is exposed to sunlight, the photons are reflected, passed through, or even absorbed by the solar cell.
When enough photons are absorbed by the negative photovoltaic cell, the electrons are freed. Because of sophisticated manufacturing, these free electrons migrate to the positive layer of the photovoltaic cells that create a voltage differential, not unlike that of a household battery.
When the two layers of the photovoltaic cell are connected, electrons flow through a circuit, and that creates electricity. However, each cell only produces 1-2 watts. A solar module is created to combine these cells for increased power output. When wired together into a solar array, they create the necessary voltage required.
Solar power cells are incredibly environmentally friendly, because photovoltaic cells are made of abundant silicone. Requiring little maintenance these cells are silent and clean.